Question 6 discusses the goodness of God. Some objections here I will also include, as for defense of the faith we are called to give these sort of reasons (1 Peter 3:15).

Article 1 consists of whether God is good. The objections state that God cannot be good because, 1) good belongs to things of order, species and order, to which God is not, and 2) God cannot be good because good is desirable but God is not desirable by all as all do not know God. The reply is that God is the first and final cause, and thus he is also the cause of goodness and all good comes from him. The mode, species and order are found in the essence of the cause, God is the cause. One does not need to know God as himself, but can have natural knowledge of intelligence, and also all things seek their own perfection (goodness) and subtly seek God in this way.

Article 2 consists of whether God is the supreme good. The objections state that God is not the absolute good because, (1) supreme good adds something to good, but God has nothing added to him (he is not a compound being) but is simple, (2 & 3) to say God is the supreme good is to say there are other good things, but “God alone is good”. The reply to these is that the good between God and man are not univocal, as God’s good and ours are relational. As creatures, we only “have” this good as imparted from the creator and is therefore limited, but God is not.

Article 3 consists of whether to be essentially good belongs to God alone. We know that, as all good comes from God, we must remember that God is his essence and anything coming from his emanation into thing is only possesses that thing which in this case is goodness; we have good, God is good.

Article 4 consist of whether all things are good by the divine goodness. God caused the goodness in things, and creatures are therefore good by reason of the divine goodness.

To study the Summa Theologiae, I highly suggest doing so with Verbum from Logos bible software. Verbum is a state-of-the-art library that connects thousands of resources so that you can study a subject with layers of depth, analysis, and understanding. If you’re new to the Summa, you really need companion material and it’s all available in the Verbum package. For example, each Question and Article in the Summa sources several other documents of the Magisterium, other philosophers, Church Fathers, etc., – and Verbum connects them all, so that in one click, you can explore and connect the Tradition of the Church easily and scholarly. I use Verbum everyday, no exaggeration, it’s that important to me. Learn more about Verbum here.